Feedback

Teachers are swimming in feedback. When we teach we give and receive feedback all the time, and it is an utterly essential part of the classroom interaction. We get feedback from students’ facial expressions, their body language, that glazed look of incomprehension and (hopefully) the glint of “a-ha”.  We get it from the way that the students use the language, mistakes, and perfect sentences.  We get it more formally with questionnaires, and formal surveys, and slightly less formally by checking at the end of each lesson. We offer it through praise, and through our facial expressions and body language too. We offer it through error correction (both oral and written), and through the questions we ask. Students also get and give feedback from and to each other. It is impossible to imagine a classroom without feedback.  Both teachers and students recognise the value of this feedback (even though it may be given and received unconsciously in some cases)

But, how much feedback goes on in your workplace outside the classroom? Is it enough? Do you (and everyone else around you) recognise the value of feedback? Do you actively seek it out?

I’ll come clean and declare my biases and say up front that feedback is quite possibly the management subject that most intrigues me and one that is (in my opinion) sadly neglected in much management literature and thinking. The concept of feedback in management seems often to be relegated to an annual performance review, and in our context to a possible occasional lesson observation. However, I feel a regular, ongoing, culture of feedback is an integral part of a true learning organisation.  This subject also came up recently on Jeremy Harmer’s (excellent) blog.

In this post I’d like to try and set out what I mean by effective feedback, why I think it is essential, and how we can perhaps starting to instil a culture of feedback in our schools. I’ll be focussing on ongoing informal feedback rather than more formal performance management (or appraisal) systems.

Why is feedback useful (nay essential)? Well, for the same reasons it is essential for our students. It lets people know that they’re on the right track. It helps them to feel competent. It helps signal which goals are most important. It can also feed into the more formal systems (and ensures that nothing that comes up in such a system is not a surprise).

Effective feedback is feedback which is heard by the receiver. Meaning they don’t get defensive (if it is perceived as “negative” feedback), and genuinely hear the message that is being delivered. It is effective if the channels of communication and the relationship between giver and receiver are unaffected by the feedback (or even possibly improved).  It is effective if feedback is not avoided in the future (from either side – if you find yourselves avoiding each other in the corridor after some feedback has been given, then the feedback was ineffective).  Once again, go back to the classroom – for most classroom feedback this is definitely the case. Is it so outside the class?

One of my favourite articles about feedback is by Larry Porter and is entitled “Giving and Receiving Feedback: It will never be easy, but it can be better”.  I have found it reproduced on the web here.  It’s definitely worth reading in full as, for me, it really cuts to the heart of many of the problems with feedback, and in a short space manages to sum up many of the truths about feedback, and also provides a very good “how to” guide.

I won’t repeat it all here, but in it, Porter gives 13 criteria for effective feedback.  Two of them in particular stand out for me (though all are very important)

Number 2 …Effective feedback…”Comes as soon as appropriate after the behaviour“. Imagine how useful your students would find it if at the end of the course you told them they had been repeatedly making mistakes with their use of the present perfect. Immediate feedback gives people the chance to improve and act on the feedback. It ensures that any “appraisal” or evaluation is not a surprise, and crucially it keeps the channels of communication open. Obviously it can’t always be totally immediate, and there may be good reasons why it needs to wait for a short time, but it ought to be offered as soon as possible.

Number 9, for me, is the really key one. Effective feedback…”Is solicited or at least to some extent desired by the receiver.

Going back to the language classroom – our students (usually) desire feedback. They understand how useful it is for their progress and they want to know if they’ve (for example) said something correctly or made an error. They may even want more feedback than you, the teacher, are prepared to give them.  How can we make this the case outside the classroom?  How can we make people actively seek out feedback, how can we create an environment where people want to know what’s going well, what’s going badly, and how they are being perceived?

I like to think that just as a classroom has an understood “culture of feedback”, so can the organisation as a whole. Communication in general is utterly vital in the learning organisation, and feedback forms an essential part of that communication. And, I believe, this culture of feedback has to begin with the manager. By being open to feedback (and indeed by seeking it out) we are more likely to keep those channels of communication open and ensure that communication is ongoing and multidirectional. And by offering feedback (both in the form of praise and “constructive criticism) whenever it is merited, we can take those first small steps in instilling such a culture.

Finally, a last word on praise (since we tend to focus on negative feedback in our worrying about this issue – and that certainly is where much of Porter’s article comes from). There seems to be a concern that we might offer too much praise. However, in workshops, presentations and plenaries in many different countries and to many different groups of people I have asked people to tell me if they get too much praise from their line manager.  In all I have asked (literally) hundreds of people this question, and not once have I had a single person telling me that they do. I’ve had two people in that time tell me they think they get enough, but nobody who thinks they get too much. So let’s stop worrying about overpraising people – it’s just not happening. If it starts to be a problem we can address it when it comes up. And for now, we can even go ahead and start trying to overpraise – if you are throwing darts and consistently miss the treble 20 to the left, then aim to the right a little. It might feel wrong, but you are actually more likely to hit the target. Likewise with praise. Just try it. You might struggle a little at first with the sense that it sounds fake, but as long as it is honest and real praise, then go ahead and offer it. Once again, think of the classroom – do you worry that you’re praising your students too much if they come out with well-constructed utterances? I’m guessing you don’t.

So go ahead, experiment. Offer praise where praise is due (and in all cases where praise is due), and other forms of constructive feedback as and when it arises. And ask people to give you feedback. As often as you can. You’re very unlikely to overdo it. Honestly.

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2 Responses to “Feedback”

  1. Borja Says:

    Thank you Andy for such a good post. And thank you Maureen for pointing it out. I’d like to make some comments.
    Feedback: student – teacher
    I agree when you say that teachers are swimming in feedback. My experience though is that many times teachers don’t read it. I think this is mainly due to lack of experience but it could also be due to lack of interest. One of the manager’s job is to help teacher be able to read this feedback and do something about it. I personally like the idea of having a chart on the wall where students, especially older teenagers and adults, write a brief comment after each lesson. My experience is that students mention things like: The listening was too difficult. The speaking activity was fun. The vocabulary was very useful. We enjoyed the pair activity. I like your idea of creating a culture of feedback for the classroom too. The pronunciation exercise was impossible.

    Feedback: manager – employee
    I agree. I do not think employees get too much praise. I don’t think they get enough feedback either. Many teachers in Spain don’t even get an appraisal. They might get the occasional talk …when something has gone wrong. One crucial factor to take into consideration is span of control which is basically the number of employees each manager supervises. I have the feeling that the average number in schools in Spain is much higher than 10 which is the number of employees a manager can supervise… effectively. In small schools there might be nobody supervising the employees because it’s just a small school. In big schools, there are too many employees and it’s impossible to give everyone feedback. It seems like there is always an excuse not to give constructive feedback to employees…but there seems to be time for the I’m warning you… kind of talk, shaking the finger in front of their nose.
    The same way that I like the poster in the classroom for open feedback, with employees I like the idea of having roundtables every term to discuss what’s important to them. This could be done by eliciting from the employees issues that they want to discuss, asking them to write them on pieces of paper and then pulling them out of a hat. People are then invited to participate, maybe in small groups first and then as a whole group. This kind of activity will only be successful if there is a culture of feedback and trust in the school. Otherwise, people might be too worried about losing their job if they open their mouth. Creating this open atmosphere is vital for the smooth running of the organisation and for everyone’s health.
    These roundtables are like fashion shows: Who the hell would wear that? It’s not just what you see (or hear) it’s the tendency.

  2. cynicalsamaritan Says:

    Feedback: Teacher-student

    Feedback has been one of my weak points to be honest, at least individual feedback. I usually save my feedback comments for the end of my classes or just before a coffee break. In a classroom, I aim for more general errors and give feedback to the class as a whole rather than singling out any individual. Sometimes I think my EFL students would prefer the individual feedback directed at them, but I prefer the general approach and hope it sets them on course.

    Feedback: Manager-teacher

    As a teacher, I like to hear constructive feedback. I like to know what I’m doing is effective and aligned with the program/school’s goals & objectives. I also like to know how I can correct my mistakes and what is expected of me, rather than simple complaints from management.
    * I can’t speak as a manager giving feedback because I haven’t been in that position yet.

    Thanks for the great post.


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